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ICONIC IMAGES

 These Ancient Structures Are So Advanced, They Ought Not To Exist Even If Built Today
We either need to stop underestimating ancient cultures or it’s time we rule out primitive tools and hop on the alien bandwagon. These five ancient structures were not built by loincloth-wearing savagesŠ
 Derinkuyu’s Massive, Ancient Underground City
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Derinkuyu’s underground city was discovered in the 1960s in Turkey, when a modern house above ground was being renovated.
Much to the relief of everyone present, the 18-story underground city was abandoned and not swarming with mole people.
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Hidden for centuries right under everyone’s noses, Derinkuyu is just the largest of hundreds of underground complexes built by we’re-not-sure-who-exactly around the eighth century B.C.
To understand just what’s so phenomenal about this feat of engineering, imagine someone handing you a hammer and chisel and telling you to go dig out a system of underground chambers  capable of sustaining 20,000 people. And not one of those fancy modern chisels, either – we’re talking about something dug with whatever excavating tools they had 2,800 years ago.
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The city was probably used as a giant bunker to protect its inhabitants from either war or natural disaster, but its architects were clearly determined to make it the most comfortable doomsday bunker ever.
It had access to fresh flowing water – the wells were not connected with the surface to prevent poisoning by crafty land dwellers.
It also has individual quarters, shops, communal rooms, tombs, arsenals, livestock, and escape routes.
Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni: Unexplainable Acoustics
 
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On the island of Malta is a prehistoric underground megalithic structure known awesomely as the Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni.
It was discovered by accident in 1902 when some workers were digging a hole and broke through the ceiling. Oh, and they also found about 7,000 skeletons all clustered near the entrance.
The three-level underground structure is made entirely out of megalithic stones, and was built who knows when.
But here’s the kicker – the effect only worked if the speaking voice was in the 95 to 120 Hz range, so women’s voices don’t usually generate the same effect.
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It gets weirder: If you’re a man chanting at roughly the 110 Hz frequency, the entire temple complex turns into this bizarre trance-inducing room that seems able to stimulate the creative center of the human brain.
Simply put, by merely standing inside that temple complex while someone was chanting in the proper location, you actually enhanced your religious experience.
And that’s all we really know about this place. We have no idea who built it or how they pulled it off. All we know for certain is that they had a knowledge of acoustics that is still baffling scientists to this very day.
The Ancient Marib Dam: Worked For Thousands Of Years
 
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Wikipedia Commons
Yemen is a country rich in dust and poor in water, which is why in ancient times the empire that controlled it, the Sabaens, built a great dam in 750 B.C.
The dam, which was cheated out of being one of the “official” Seven Wonders of the World, was nevertheless regarded one of the greatest feats of engineering of the pre-industrial age.
After all, building a dam isn’t like putting a bunch of stone monoliths in a big circle. You have to have canals, gates, sluices, and spillways, and the whole thing has to be waterproof.
The Sabaens managed all this before the existence of concrete, and their dam stood for over 1,000 years. In comparison, modern dams built with our advanced technology last for around 50 years, or 100 if they’re really something.
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Wikipedia Commons
The Great Dam of Marib was about 2,000 feet long (almost twice as long as the puny Hoover Dam), and while it stood,
it converted ancient Yemen into a fertile oasis, what was then known as the kingdom of Sheba (of “Queen of Sheba” fame).
Because everything has to fall down eventually, the dam finally burst around 600 A.D., bringing down much of the agriculture system and converting the area into the sandy fun park it is today.
Pumapunku: Complex Interlocking Stones
 
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Wikipedia Commons
the almost weird precision of the stonework that would make modern builders envious.
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Wikipedia Commons
Using crude technology, they pioneered a kind of construction that used hundreds of large, identical building blocks to make buildings like you and I would make a house out of LEGO. To make cuts as straight and precise today, we’d reach for some kind of laser cutter. They used chisels and rulers.
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Wikipedia Commons
To keep the buildings structurally sound, they even used a form of metal I-cramps similar to what we would use today to keep the giant blocks in place in case of an earthquake.
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Wikipedia Commons
These aren’t just little cinder blocks, either. The largest of the stones is 25 feet long and 17 feet wide, and has been estimated to weigh around 130 tons(for comparison, that’s only around 20 or so standard semi trailers). Yet somehow, with no technologies like wheels, cranes, or even a writing system,  the Tiwanaku people moved these giant rocks to the Pumapunku site and shaped them into perfect, complex forms.
Like all good mystery civilizations, the Tiwanaku eventually vanished, but their work was so impressive that the next empire to come along, the Inca,  thought they were gods and that Pumapunku was the center of the world.
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Wikipedia Commons
Gobekli Tepe: Built Before Humans Grew Food
 
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Photo: Berthold Steinhilber / Smithsonian Magazine
Back in the 1960s, surveyors in Turkey found an ancient buried complex composed of huge stone pillars arranged in a circle like Stonehenge,
some of them 30 feet tall. What really knocked the monocles out of their eyes, however, was that this was much older than Stonehenge Š 6,000 years older!
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Wikipedia Commons
So those massive, ornate limestone pillars were carefully carved from a nearby quarry using hunks of flint rock and their bare hands.
Having been dated to around 9000 B.C., Gobekli Tepe is thought to be the oldest human construction.
That’s further back than any of the ancient sites you learned about in history class. In fact, it’s in the Stone Age,
where the only things we knew how to build were likely to fall over in a stiff breeze.
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In fact, the site even predates agriculture, which means that the people who built it were still chasing mammoths rather than planting crops.
Discovering that this complex of massive stone pillars was actually built by Encino Man, as National Geographic puts it, “was like finding that someone had built a 747 in a basement with an X-Acto knife.”
And this doesn’t make much sense, because conventional knowledge has always been that humans didn’t start building things until after we learned how to farm.
Given that excavations turned up a whole lot of bones at the site, probably from animal sacrifices, archaeologists are pretty sure that it was a religious site,   which seems to indicate that it was religion, not agriculture, that first inspired people to build giant structures.

 

At last!! I have found another great bridge building story. This time the iconic Sydney Harbour Bridge…

This is an old movie, but so interesting. It was great to see the harbour with no bridge, and the trams at Circular Quay.

Great footage…….. 7 minutes.   Please copy and paste.

http://www.youtube.com/embed/Jy5cZ-IO0Eg?feature=player_detailpage

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This story is a favourite of mine, that’s why it’s posted here!!!    I wonder if they created the computer images for the Sherlock Holmes movie, when Robert Downie fought the bad guy on the bridge as it was under construction?

Stripped down as you’ve never seen her:

Pictures of Tower Bridge during construction found dumped in a skip

By Daily Mail Reporter
This is one of the London’s most beloved landmarks as you’ve never seen her before.

Stripped down to her underwear, the never before seen pictures of Tower Bridge – one of the world’s most recognisable structures – have been unveiled after the stash of hundred-year-old prints were found in a skip.

Coinciding with the 125th anniversary of the bridge’s foundation, the 50 sepia photos reveal in incredible detail the ingenuity behind one of the capital’s most popular tourist destinations, which was the first bridge of its kind in the world.

Never seen before: The pictures of London's Tower Bridge were found in a skip and then wrapped up in brown paper and put in a carrier bag under a bed

Never seen before: The pictures of London’s Tower Bridge were found in a skip and then wrapped up in brown paper and put in a carrier bag under a bed

The unique pictures, dating back to 1892, document the construction the iconic bridge, which at the time was a landmark feat of engineering nicknamed ‘The Wonder Bridge’.

The discarded pictures, which were retrieved by a caretaker who was looking after a building being turned into flats in 2006, have spent the last five years in a carrier bag underneath his bed.

The 59-year-old, wh/div o wi shes to remain anonymous, said that after the occupants of the Westminster office building moved out, the album and a number of documents were thrown into a skip outside.He said: ‘I took the ledgers to the Tower Bridge Museum because I thought they might have some historical value.

Remarkable find: The prints reveal in incredible detail the ingenuity behind one of the capital's most popular tourist attractions and how it was put together

Remarkable find: The prints reveal in incredible detail the ingenuity behind one of the capital’s most popular tourist attractions and how it was put together

A view of the bridge: The sturdy steel frame of Tower Bridge can be seen, before it was covered with its distinctive stone-cladding on the orders of architect John Wolfe-Barry

A view of the bridge: The sturdy steel frame of Tower Bridge can be seen, before it was covered with its distinctive stone-cladding on the orders of architect John Wolfe-Barry

 ‘They included records of the materials and used in the bridge’s construction and what they cost.

‘I told the man at the museum that I had also found some photos but he told me they already had plenty of those.

‘I didn’t know what to do with them so I wrapped them in some brown paper and put them in a bag under the bed.’ It wasn’t until earlier this month, when the owner of the photos mentioned them to his neighbour, City of Westminster tour guide Peter Berthoud that the significance of the find fully emerged.

Mr Berthoud, an expert in the history of London who gives guided tours around famous landmarks including Tower Bridge, said he was gobsmacked by the haul.

Tower Bridge

Tower Bridge

Stripped down: The photographs show how the bridge was put together over eight years, revealing why it was nicknamed at the time the ‘Wonder Bridge’

Landmark: Tower Bridge remains one of the capital's most iconic structures and a tourist attraction today, 125 years after building started

Landmark: Tower Bridge remains one of the capital’s most iconic structures and a tourist attraction today, 125 years after building started

Sepia to silver screen: The incomplete Tower Bridge features in the 2009 film Sherlock Holmes, where Holmes battles with his adversary Lord Henry Blackwood

Sepia to silver screen: The incomplete Tower Bridge features in the 2009 film Sherlock Holmes, where Holmes battles with his adversary Lord Henry Blackwood

And contrary to popular misconception, the images reveal the bridge is a sturdy steel frame beneath the instantly recognisable stone-cladding.

Mr Berthoud said: ‘When my neighbour gave me a disk with the images on I just couldn’t believe it.
‘I spent hours going through my books to see if these pictures were already around, but I couldn’t see them anywhere – they are totally unique.

‘Quite simply London Bridge is the world’s most iconic bridge, and it’s the only bridge over the Thames which has never needed to be replaced at some point.
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2067581/Stripped-youve-seen-Pictures-Tower-Bridge-construction-dumped-skip.html#ixzz1iaHtRQvk

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